We experimentally and numerically demonstrate the transverse electrical response produced by circularly-polarized light with normal incidence observed as transverse photoinduced voltage across the plasmonic metasurface made of triangle holes. The measured transverse photo-induced voltage is consistent with the calculated acting force on electrons in the metasurface by using the Maxwell's stress tensor. The polarity of voltage reverses as the incident spin (light helicity) switches from right-handed circular polarization to left-handed circular polarization. The origin of the spin-dependent voltage sign is the broken symmetries of the electric and magnetic fields in the triangle hole due to the opposite circular polarizations. The demonstrated results open up many opportunities in further investigating the second-order nonlinear optical effects of metamaterials and metasurfaces, and developing applications in high-speed photodetectors, polarimeters, and optical sensors.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


National Science Foundation (NSF) (ECCS-1653032, DMR-1552871); Office of Naval Research (ONR) (N00014-16-1-2408).

Keywords and Phrases

Photodetectors; Plasmonics; Plasmons; Circularly polarized light; Electric and magnetic fields; High speed photodetectors; Normal incidence; Opposite circular polarizations; Photo-induced voltage; Second-order nonlinear optical; Transverse electrical; Circular polarization

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2018 Optical Society of America (OSA), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2018