The ion implantation of boron has been found to be an effective method for increasing the conductivity of strontium titanate. A highly conductive layer was formed by implantations at doses of 3.6x1016 to 1.0x1017 ions/cm2, using an accelerating voltage of 100 kV, corresponding to a boron range of about 300 nm. The conductivity of the implanted layer was found to be further enhanced by about four orders of magnitude after annealing at 225 °C. The surface resistivity attained was typically 1000 Ω/square at room temperature. The resistance increased with rising temperature between 77 and 500 K. All samples were found to be n type, as determined by Hall-effect and thermoelectric measurements. The measured Hall mobility range was from 100 cm2/V sec at 77 K, decreasing to 5 cm2/V sec at 300 K. The existence of several defect energy levels can be inferred from the electrical data.
C. M. Cooper et al., "Conductive Strontium Titanate Layers Produced By Boron-ion Implantation," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 2826 - 2831, American Institute of Physics, Dec 1979.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1063/1.326195
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01 Dec 1979