Ion implantation has a substantial effect on the heterogeneous nucleation of water and ice. An enhancement of water nucleation and a suppression of ice nucleation occurred for samples of silicon implanted with ions of various species and dosage. These effects were noticeable only for samples implanted with ion doses approaching or exceeding the critical dose necessary to produce amorphous silicon. The behavior of the water droplet and ice crystal growth can be related to the amount of ion produced damage to the substrate surface. The nature of the damage can be controlled by variation of the incident ion species, dose, and energy and thus offers a means of quantifying the surface damage while studying its relationship to heterogeneous nucleation. © 1980 American Chemical Society.
W. H. Stlnebaugh et al., "Water And Ice Nucleation Sites From Ion Implantation Of Silicon," The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1469 - 1473, American Chemical Society, Jan 1980.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1021/j100449a008
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01 Jan 1980