Experimental ratios of L-subshell cross sections are given for ionization of lead and bismuth by 0.5-4-MeV-proton bombardment. The ratio of the LII to LI cross sections exhibits a maximum near 1.75 MeV. Individual subshell cross sections are obtained from the experimental ratios and previous total-cross-section data. These subshell ratios and cross sections are compared with the theoretical predictions of the plane-wave Born approximation using nonrelativistic hydrogenic wave functions, of the binary-encounter approximation scaled from Mg K-shell cross sections, and of the binary-encounter approximation scaled from cross sections obtained using L-shell velocity distributions. It was found that both approximations predict the trend of the data for the LII and LIII subshells, but that only the plane-wave Born approximation gave the proper behavior for the LI subshell.
D. H. Madison et al., "Pb and Bi L-Subshell Ionization Cross-Section Ratios Versus Proton Bombarding Energy from 0.5 to 4 MeV," Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 675-681, American Physical Society (APS), Feb 1974.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.9.675
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