The Powder Spreading is a Vital Step of Powder-Based Additive Manufacturing (AM) Processes. the Quality of Spread Powder Can Considerably Influence the Properties of Fabricated Parts. Poorly Packed Powder Beds with High Surface Roughness Result in Printed Part Layers with Large Porosity and Low Dimensional Accuracy, Leading to Poor Mechanical Properties. Therefore, the Powder Spread ability and its Dependence on Process Parameters and Powder Characteristics Should Be Quantified to Improve the Efficiency of Powder-Based AM Methods. This Study Proposes a Novel Dimensionless Powder Spread Ability Metric that Can Be Commonly Used in Different Powder-Based AM Processes. the Quality of Spread Powder in Terms of Powder Bed Density and Surface Roughness Was Evaluated by Adjusting the Process Parameters Including Recoating Velocity and Layer Thickness, and Powder Characteristics Including Particle Size Distribution. in Addition, the Dynamic Repose Angle Was Proposed and Examined as Another Powder Spread Ability Metric. the Results Showed that These Two Proposed Metrics Were Strongly Correlated and Lower Recoating Velocity and Larger Layer Thickness Led to Higher Spread ability and Lower Dynamic Repose Angle.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


U.S. Department of Energy, Grant DE-N000343667

Keywords and Phrases

Additive manufacturing; Design of experiments (DOE); Dynamic repose angle; Powder bed density; Powder spreading; Powder surface roughness

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1433-3015; 0268-3768

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 Springer, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2023