Study of Spent Refractory Waste Recycling from Metal Manufacturers in Missouri


There are over 150 metal related companies in Missouri that discard approximately 7500 metric tons of spent refractories annually. Nearly all ( 99%) of the refractories are landfilled wasting valuable natural resources. The purpose of this research is to minimize the refractory wastes being landfilled by studying the types and quantities of spent refractories generated by these companies, the states of these wastes, and technologies for recycling and reusing them. Conducting this study in Missouri is ideal because it has a diverse group of metals (lead, aluminum, steel and copper) manufacturers and the results, therefore, should be applicable to other regions of the US and of the world. This paper reviews previously identified techniques for recycling refractory materials, summarizes data from informational surveys of metals manufacturers in the state, and highlights potential barriers to, and opportunities for, spent refractory recycling. Results from the surveys indicated that two large waste streams exist in Missouri and that identifying and implementing recycling of these two waste streams would dramatically reduce the quantity of spent refractories landfilled annually.


Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center

Keywords and Phrases

Recycling; Reusing; Spent Refractories; Wastes

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 1999 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Feb 1999