Skin and proximity effects can cause a significant drop in the effective leakage inductance of a transformer when the operating frequency is increased. Although the magnetic image method-based double-2-D model can calculate the low-frequency leakage inductance with sufficient accuracy, it is inherently a frequency-independent model. While Dowell's 1-D model uses frequency-dependent relations to account for both skin and proximity effects, its accuracy is severely affected by the assumed winding geometry. In this paper, a hybrid model is proposed that uses superposition to combine a modified Dowell's model with the double-2-D model. The proposed model is investigated on a variable inductance transformer (VIT)-a partially-filled transformer whose leakage inductance can be varied by moving one of the windings mechanically. The frequency-dependent leakage inductances of the VIT evaluated using the hybrid model are in excellent agreement with the corresponding finite element method (FEM) simulated and experimentally measured values, thereby validating the proposed hybrid model.


Electrical and Computer Engineering


Vehicle Technologies Office, Grant DE-EE0008449

Keywords and Phrases

Double-2-D model; Dowell's 1-D model; hybrid model; leakage inductance; variable inductance transformer

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

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Publication Date

01 Jan 2022