A High-Performance Standard Dipole Antenna Suitable for Antenna Calibration


Ideal dipole antennas are desirable for antenna calibration. However, real-world implementation issues introduce inevitable non-ideal effects that can significantly affect the quality of calibration. In this communication, a 2-GHz standard dipole (SD) antenna is presented with an excellent overall performance. This result is achieved by an innovative design with an optimized element shape and an embedded (shielded) balun. The designed feeding structure is a balanced structure that transitions from parallel strip lines to coaxial lines. The feeding method avoids the impact of electromagnetic environment asymmetry while achieving an appropriate balance. The measured relative bandwidth of the dipole exceeds 15%, and the antenna gain is approximately 2 dBi. The cross-polarization ratio is greater than 27 dB in the horizontal plane, and the horizontal gain variation is less than 0.2 dB. The dipole has a symmetrical vertical plane pattern, and the maximum gain point does not deviate from the horizontal plane. The high performance of this SD makes it suitable for antenna calibration.


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Laboratory

Keywords and Phrases

Antenna Calibration; Antenna Measurements; Baluns; Coaxial Cables; Conductors; Dipole Antennas; Embedded Balun; Gain; Inductors; Optimized Element Shape; Standard Dipole

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1558-2221; 0018-926X

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2021 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Dec 2021