This paper proposes a new energy storage system (ESS) design including both batteries and ultracapacitors (UC) in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle (EV) applications. The conventional designs require a dc-dc converter to interface the UC unit. Herein, the UC can be directly switched across the motor drive dc-link during the peak power demands. The resulting wide voltage variation due to UC power transfer is addressed by the simple modulator introduced in this paper, so that the motor drive performance is not disrupted. Based on this new methodology, the paper further introduces two ESS schemes with different topologies, UC rating and energy flow control. They are applicable to both lightly and heavily hybridized HEVs. Both schemes have the benefits of high efficiency (without a dc-dc link) and low cost. The simulation and experimental results validate the new methodology.

Meeting Name

IEEE Industry Applications Conference/41st IAS Annual Meeting (2006: Oct. 8-12, Tampa, FL)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

DC Motor Drives; DC-DC Power Convertors; Energy Storage; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Hybrid Vehicle; Power Management; Regenerative Braking; Ultracapacitors; Electric Drives; Electric Motors; Electric Power Measurement; Electric Vehicles; Systems Analysis; Energy Storage Systems; Electric Energy Storage

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2006 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Oct 2006