Doctoral Dissertations

Keywords and Phrases

Additives; Capacity; Cycle Life; Electrochemistry; Energy Storage; Lead-acid Batteries


"Lead-acid batteries are an established technology with nearly 99% recyclability; however, lead-acid batteries produce only 40% of their theoretical capacity due to poor active mass utilization and PbSO4 pore blockage, and the longevity of the batteries is hampered by secondary reactions during the cycle life such as corrosion and gassing.

Lead-acid batteries were investigated and improved through several different approaches: an alternative electrolyte to mitigate secondary reactions, graphite additives to improve positive active mass (PAM) utilization, and dispersant additives to help the industrial pasting process.

The thermodynamics and chemical reactions of a commercial electrolyte replacement called TydrolyteTM were investigated using a model smooth lead system and compared to standard electrolyte. Tydrolyte contains a concentrated Eigen proton structure (H9O4+) that consists of a hydronium cation (H3O+) hydrated by three water molecules.

The positive active mass (PAM) utilization is of great importance, because it limits the theoretical capacity of the battery. Various differentiating graphite additives were incorporated into the positive paste, in a range of amounts, to study and compare their effects on PAM utilization under a wide range of current rates.

Due to its rheological properties, positive lead-acid battery paste can be difficult to spread on lead current collectors accurately and efficiently in industry settings. A sodium polymethacrylate dispersant was studied as an effective positive paste additive that could lower the yield stress of the paste without affecting paste density and battery performance"--Abstract, p. iv


Dogan, Fatih

Committee Member(s)

Moats, Michael S.
Park, Jonghyun
Switzer, Jay A., 1950-
Fleming, Frank


Materials Science and Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Materials Science and Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Fall 2021


xii, 154 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes_bibliographical_references_(page 153)


© 2021 Julian Kosacki, All Rights Reserved

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 12218