Doctoral Dissertations

Keywords and Phrases

24-DOF; 6-DOF; LHD Vibrations; LHD Virtual Model; Natural Frequencies; Numerical Model


"Load-haul-dump vehicles (LHDs) are extensively used as primary loaders in mining operations. LHDs have proven to be vigorous, extremely productive and reliable in mining applications. They have a wide range of tramming capacities that have enabled them to become an essential component in the hard rock mining industry.

Increased mining economic challenges and global competition means the mining industry has to maximize productivity by cutting down operating and capital costs. Also, improvements in safety standards have led to the demand for safer and efficient machines.

LHD operators are at a high risk of whole-body vibrations (WBVs) exposure leading to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) over long exposure periods, and elevated lower back and neck injuries. Thus, there is a health and safety concern among LHD operators. Despite manufacturer’s emphasis on ergonomics, there is lack of adequate fundamental vibration models of large mining equipment accessible to the public.

This research focused on developing valid analytical and numerical models for determining the vibration propagation in LHDs. Also, this research pioneered the development and analysis of comprehensive dynamic virtual models of LHDs with detailed vibration analysis of the operator-seat interface. The introduced LHD virtual prototype has a total of 24-DOF and captures the complex vibration mechanics of the LHD, with emphasis on vibrations reaching the operator seat-interface in the three dimensions (3D), x, y and z-directions. The RMS accelerations recorded at the operator-seat interface are 0.62 m/s² in the x-direction, 0.51 m/s² in the y-direction, and 1.01 m/s² in the z-direction which exceed the ISO-2631 comfort level"--Abstract, page iii.


Aouad, Nassib

Committee Member(s)

Stutts, Daniel S.
Worsey, Paul Nicholas
Alagha, Lana Z.
Galecki, Greg


Mining Engineering

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Mining Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Fall 2017


xvi, 168 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographic references (pages 162-167)


© 2017 Kgosietsile Kolobe, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Thesis Number

T 11229

Electronic OCLC #