Doctoral Dissertations

Keywords and Phrases

Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR); Local Liquid Velocity (VLL); Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV); Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR); Trickle Liquid Hydrodynamic; X-ray radiography


"Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are fixed beds of particles in which both liquid and gas flow concurrently downward. They are widely used to produce not only fuels but also lubrication products. The measurement and the knowledge of local liquid velocities (VLL) in TBRs is less which is essential for advancing the understanding of its hydrodynamics and for validation computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore, this work focused on developing a new, non-invasive, statistically reliable technique that can be used to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) in two-dimensions (2-D). This is performed by combining Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography (DIR) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) techniques. This work also make possible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) VLL measurements that can be taken in TBRs. Measurements taken through both the combined and the novel technique, once validated, were found to be comparable to another technique (a two-point fiber optical probe) currently being developed at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The results from this study indicate that, for a gas-liquid-solid type bed, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 35 and 51 times that of its superficial liquid velocity (VSL). Without the existence of gas, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 4 and 4.7 times that of its VSL. At a higher VSL, the particle tracer was greatly distributed and became carried away by a high liquid flow rate. Neither the variance nor the range of measured VLL varied for any of the replications, confirming the reproducibility of the experimental measurements used, regardless of the VSL. The liquid's movement inside the pore was consistent with findings from previous studies that used various techniques"--Abstract, page iii.


Lee, Hyoung-Koo
Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.

Committee Member(s)

Castano Giraldo, Carlos Henry
Moss, Randy Hays, 1953-
Liu, Xin (Mining & Nuclear Engr)


Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science

Degree Name

Ph. D. in Nuclear Engineering


Missouri University of Science and Technology

Publication Date

Summer 2014


xvi, 107 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 98-106).


© 2014 Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Chemical reactors -- Fluid dynamics -- Mathematical models
Gas-liquid interfaces

Thesis Number

T 10536

Electronic OCLC #