Security in the Cyber-Physical Electric Power Infrastructure


The emerging smart electrical grid is a representative application of the growing interaction between computing, communication networks, and physical devices in modern system design. More widely referred to as cyber-physical systems (CPSs), the reliable and sound operation of these systems is of the utmost priority, given how every sector of society and the economy depend on them for day-to-day operation [1, 2]. The compound discrete computational and continuous physical nature of a CPS, however, provokes new system design challenges; not only do these have different semantics from each other, but the notion of system boundaries is blurred from purely cyber or purely physical systems. The embedded computers and communication networks therein govern both physical manifestations and computations, which in turn affect how these two major components interact with each other and the outside world [3]. As we shall see in this chapter, this lack of boundaries creates a host of new security and privacy vulnerabilities. Specifically, changes in the physical portion of the infrastructure are always observable and adversaries to the system can potentially derive sensitive system internal settings by observing these external system changes. This derived knowledge coupled with the semantic knowledge of the system can be used against the system. In terms of system security models centered around the classic CIA1 triad [4], this is a confidentiality violation with serious system integrity and availability breach implications. Moreover, typical system security models are not necessarily adequately expressive in their ability to address these new…


Computer Science


Chapter 10

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Table of Contents

10.1 Abstract, page 252
10.2 Need and Challenges, page 253
10.3 The Case for Information Flow Security, page 254
10.4 Characterizing Confidentiality, page 255
10.5 Compensation as a Security Measure, page 257
10.6 Confidentiality in Electric Smart Grid Systems, page 258
10.6.1 Formal Models of Composition of Cyber and Physical Processes, page 262
10.6.2 The π-calculus, page 263
10.6.3 Information Flow Properties for CPSs, page 264
10.6.4 Modeling of FREEDM Using the π-calculus, page 265
10.6.5 Verification of Information Flow in FREEDM Using π-calculus, page 268
10.6.6 Mobility Workbench, page 273
10.6.7 ProVerif, page 274
10.7 Refine Existing Methods of Information Flow Analysis to Encompass Multiple Security Domains, page 276
10.8 Execution Monitoring Enforcement to Preserve Information Flow Security, page 281
10.9 The Way Forward, page 286


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Publication Date

31 Oct 2020