A Novel Localization and Coverage Framework for Real-Time Participatory Urban Monitoring


Participatory sensing is a powerful paradigm in which users participate in the sensing campaign by collecting and crowdsourcing fine-grained information and opinions about events of interest (such as weather or environment monitoring, traffic conditions or accidents, crime scenes, emergency response, healthcare and wellness management), thus leading to actionable inferences and decisions. Based on the nature of user involvement, participatory sensing applications can be of two types-automated and user manipulated. The first type of applications automatically collects data samples from smartphone sensors and sends them to the server. On the other hand, the second type of applications depends on the users to manually collect data samples and upload them at their convenience. Because of the high density of smartphone users in urban population and ease of participation, the automated participatory sensing paradigm can be effectively applied to continuous monitoring of various phenomena in urban scenarios (e.g., fine-grained temperature monitoring, noise or air pollution), leading to what is called participatory urban sensing. However, for creating a fine-grained and real-time map of the monitored area, the data samples need to be collected continuously (at a high frequency) which poses several research challenges. First, how to ensure coverage of the collected data that reflects how well the targeted area is monitored? Second, how to localize the smartphones since continuous usage of the location sensor (e.g., GPS) can drain the battery in few hours? Third, how to provide energy efficiency in the data collection process by collecting necessary data samples in each data collection round? In this article, we propose a novel framework called PLUS to address three major issues in real-time participatory urban monitoring applications, namely, ensuring coverage of the collected data, localization of the participating smartphones, and overall energy efficiency of the data collection process. Specifically the PLUS framework can guarantee a specified requirement of partial data coverage of the monitored area in an energy efficient manner. Additionally we devised a Markov-Predictor based energy efficient outdoor localization scheme for the mobile devices to participate in the data collection process. Simulation studies and real life experiments exhibit that PLUS can significantly reduce energy consumption of the mobile devices for urban monitoring applications as compared to traditional approaches.


Computer Science

Keywords and Phrases

Collector efficiency; Energy efficiency; Energy utilization; Human computer interaction; mHealth; Monitoring; Smartphones; Data collection process; Environment monitoring; Localization; Overall energy efficiency; Participatory Sensing; Participatory sensing applications; Reduce energy consumption; Urban monitoring; Data acquisition; Real-time urban monitoring

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Article - Journal

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© 2015 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Oct 2015