Serverless computing automates fine-grained resource scaling and simplifies the development and deployment of online services with stateless functions. However, it is still non-trivial for users to allocate appropriate resources due to various function types, dependencies, and input sizes. Misconfiguration of resource allocations leaves functions either under-provisioned or over-provisioned and leads to continuous low resource utilization. This paper presents Freyr, a new resource manager (RM) for serverless platforms that maximizes resource efficiency by dynamically harvesting idle resources from over-provisioned functions to under-provisioned functions. Freyr monitors each function's resource utilization in real-time, detects over-provisioning and under-provisioning, and learns to harvest idle resources safely and accelerates functions efficiently by applying deep reinforcement learning algorithms along with a safeguard mechanism. We have implemented and deployed a Freyr prototype in a 13-node Apache Open Whisk cluster. Experimental results show that 38.8% of function invocations have idle resources harvested by Freyr, and 39.2% of invocations are accelerated by the harvested resources. Freyr reduces the 99th-percentile function response latency by 32.1% compared to the baseline RMs.


Computer Science


Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Grant G04200008

Keywords and Phrases

reinforcement learning; resource harvesting; Serverless computing

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

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Publication Date

25 Apr 2022