A Multi-Camera based Photogrammetric Method for Three-Dimensional Full-Field Displacement Measurements of Geosynthetics during Tensile Test


Conventional methods for measuring the deformational response of geosynthetics, such as the linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs), strain gauges, and extensometers have several limitations in fully determining the complete strain distribution in geosynthetics. This paper presents a multi-camera based photogrammetric method to track the 3D full-field displacements of geosynthetics during tensile tests. The proposed method extends the conventional one-camera based photogrammetry for static object measurements to multi-camera-based photogrammetry for object measurements with continuous movements or deformations. It is non-contact, cost-effective, highly accurate, and capable of measuring the 3D full-field displacements of the geosynthetics. A tensile test on a geogrid specimen was performed to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed photogrammetric method. The results from the tensile tests using both the proposed method and conventional methods, such as machine-controlled displacement measurements and extensometer, were presented and compared. It was observed that the average absolute difference between the proposed photogrammetric method and the machine-controlled movements of the bottom clamp was 0.25%, and the average absolute error was 0.038 mm. The average difference in measurements made by the proposed method and extensometer was 0.07%. It was further found that the proposed method can provide more comprehensive input, such as the complete strain and modulus distributions in the geosynthetics, for a probability-based geosynthetics design.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

3D deformation; Dynamic tests; Full-field displacement measurement; Geosynthetics; Multi-camera-based photogrammetric method

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2021 International Geosynthetics Society (IGS), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2021