Upward Flow of Large Size Particles-Water Mixtures Through Swaying Pipes


Calculation of the hydraulic gradient due to the upward flow of a large size particles-water mixture in a swaying vertical pipe is a central problem in the design of systems for deep-sea mining of manganese modules. Here, the problem is investigated experimentally and with a mathematical model. An experimental apparatus that mimics the deep-sea mining system was built to investigate the effects of swaying on the hydraulic gradient. The experimental results reveal that the hydraulic gradient in a swaying vertical pipe is greater than in a fixed vertical pipe (for the same flow and solid-loading conditions) as a result of the instantaneous particle-wall collisions and the solids sliding over the pipe wall. A mathematical model for the mixture flows is suggested based on a Lagrangian simulation technique. The model results offer additional insight into the dynamics of this complex flow and agree well with the new laboratory data.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering


Central University for Nationalities (China). 211 Project
National Natural Science Foundation (China)

Keywords and Phrases

Mining; Oceans; Pressure Reduction; Water Transportation; Manganese; Two-phase flow

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2004 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2004