Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Deposition of Thallium(III) Oxide Thin Films
Thallium (III) oxide is a degenerate n-type semiconductor with high optical transparency and electrical conductivity. Films of thallium(III) oxide can be electrochemically deposited onto conducting and p-type semiconducting substrates, and photoelectrochemically deposited onto n-type semiconducting substrates. Films deposited at currents below the mass transport limit onto platinum or stainless steel were columnar, and the current efficiency on stainless steel was 103 ±2%. Dendritic films were deposited at mass-transport-limited currents. Films were deposited with thicknesses ranging from 0.1 μm on n-silicon, to 170 μm on stainless steel. the photoelectrochemically deposited films were “direct-written” onto n-silicon, since the material was deposited only at irradiated portions of the electrode. Thin films were grown by irradiating the n-silicon with 450 nm monochromatic light, since the light was strongly absorbed by the thallium(III) oxide. the most uniform thin films were deposited when the n-silicon was initially irradiated with a short pulse of high intensity light. the pulse apparently promoted instantaneous nucleation of a high density of thallium(III) oxide nuclei.
R. J. Phillips et al., "Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Deposition of Thallium(III) Oxide Thin Films," Journal of Materials Research, Materials Research Society, Jan 1989.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1989.0923
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