Formation and Stability of Gismondine-Type Zeolite in Cementitious Systems


Microcrystalline zeolites of the gismondine family are often reported in alkali-activated and blended cement systems. However, little is known about gismondine's compatibility with other cementitious phases to determine stability in long-term phase assemblage. Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the compositional field of gismondine stability in the lime-alumina-silica-hydrate systems, with a particular focus on understanding the compatibility of gismondine with other cement phases such as C-S-H, ettringite, monosulfate, strätlingite, katoite, gypsum, calcite, portlandite, alkali, silica, and aluminosilicate phases. Results show that gismondine-Ca forms readily at ~85°C in high aluminosilicate compositions; and persists in the presence of calcite, gypsum, ettringite, katoite solid solution, low Ca tobermorite-like C-S-H, silica and aluminosilicate phases, at 20-85°C. However, gismondine-Ca reacts with: (a) monosulfate, producing ettringite-thaumasite solid solution; (b) portlandite, forming tobermorite-like C-A-S-H gel and siliceous katoite at > 55°C; (c) aqueous NaOH, generating gismondine-(Na,Ca), a garronite-like zeolite P solid solution; and (d) strätlingite leading to the conversion of strätlingite to gismondine indicating the metastability of strätlingite with respect to gismondine at 55°C. The outcomes are discussed to provide insights into the long-term phase assemblage of relevant cement systems such as lime-calcined clay, alkali-activated materials, and potentially ancient Roman concrete.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Second Department

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Third Department

Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

INSPIRE - University Transportation Center


Support from the National Science Foundation (CMMI: 1932690) is acknowledged.

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0002-7820; 1551-2916

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2021 American Ceramic Society (ACERS), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Mar 2021