We have observed dielectronic and direct excitation of H-like S15+ and Ca19+ and He-like Ti20+ ions in silicon channels caused by collision with weakly bound target electrons which behave as a free-electron gas. As in vacuo, relaxation of the doubly excited states can occur radiatively leading to ions of decreased charge, but in a crystal channel collisional effects can cause double ionization. The effects are seen in both the x-ray yields and charge-state fractions, and, in the case of Ti20+, in charge-state x-ray coincidences.
S. Datz and C. R. Vane and P. F. Dittner and J. P. Giese and J. C. Gomez Del Campo and N. L. Jones and H. F. Krause and P. D. Miller and M. Schulz and H. Schone and T. M. Rosseel, "Resonant Dielectronic and Direct Excitation in Crystal Channels," Physical Review Letters, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 742-745, American Physical Society (APS), Aug 1989.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.742
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