"The coal mining industry prior to 1940, was undoubtedly facing a period when operating economies and efficient utilization of labor, machines and modern practices were more necessary than ever before. With its markets definitely threatened by other sources of heat and power produced with a minimum of labor, "Coal" had to exert every effort to secure the lowest possible production cost and also to produce a more satisfactory product with greater safety to men and mines...Many attempts have been, with various methods, to invent a method of breaking down coal that would fulfill the requirements stated above. In 1924 or 1925, three coal mining men of southern Illinois - a chemist, an electrical engineer and a mine operator - conceived the idea of a non-explosive cartridge utilizing the force of expanding carbon dioxide to break down coal at a working face. They sought a medium that would be as safe, or even safer, than permissible explosives, yet which would preserve the inherently firm structure of the coal and produce less fine coal than any other type of explosive...In 1927, the Safety Mining company was formed and took over all patents for the method. The trade name of CARDOX was given the method and further experimentation with cartridges, method of shooting and co-ordinating of mining methods with CARDOX shoot was carried on...This paper deals with an explanation of the theory and mechanics of the medium and the construction of the cartridge used in the CARDOX method. Some of the details of experimentation at Centralia and Zeigler, Illinois, and the system of cutting, drilling and shooting with CARDOX are explained. Also, the mine layout and method of distribution of shells and accounting on cartridges as used by the Bell & Zoller Coal and Mining company, at Zeigler, Illinois is herein dealt with, as well as a list of safety rules for handling CARDOX"--Forward, page iii-v.


Mining Engineering

Degree Name

Professional Degree in Mining Engineering


Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy

Publication Date



viii, 55 pages

Note about bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (page 50) and index (pages 79-82).

Geographic Coverage

Centralia (Ill.)
Zeigler (Ill.)


© 1944 Durward Rice Schooler, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

File Type




Subject Headings

Blasting -- Technique
Coal mines and mining -- Testing. -- Illinois -- Centralia
Coal mines and mining -- Testing. -- Illinois -- Zeigler
Coal mines and mining

Thesis Number

T 737

Print OCLC #


Electronic OCLC #