Observation of Topological Order in a Superconducting Doped Topological Insulator
Experimental observation of topological order in three-dimensional bulk solids has recently led to a flurry of research activity1-21. Unlike the two-dimensional electron gas or quantum Hall systems, three-dimensional topological insulators can harbour superconductivity and magnetism, making it possible to study the interplay between topologically ordered phases and broken-symmetry states. One outcome of this interplay is the possible realization of Majorana fermions-quasiparticles that are their own antiparticles-on topological surfaces, which is of great interest in fundamental physics9-13,22-24. Here we present measurements of the bulk and surface electron dynamics in Bi2 Se3 doped with copper with a transition temperature Tc up to 3.8 K, observing its topological character for the first time. Our data show that superconductivity occurs in a bulk relativistic quasiparticle regime where an unusual doping mechanism causes the spin-polarized topological surface states to remain well preserved at the Fermi level of the superconductor where Cooper pairing takes place. These results suggest that the electron dynamics in superconducting Bi2 Se3 are suitable for trapping non-Abelian Majorana fermions. Details of our observations constitute important clues for developing a general theory of topological superconductivity in doped topological insulators.
L. A. Wray and S. Xu and Y. Xia and Y. S. Hor and D. Qian and A. V. Fedorov and H. Lin and A. Bansil and R. J. Cava and M. Z. Hasan, "Observation of Topological Order in a Superconducting Doped Topological Insulator," Nature Physics, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 855 - 859, Nature Publishing Group, Nov 2010.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys1762
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01 Nov 2010