Most of the traditional attosecond pulse retrieval algorithms are based on a so-called attosecond streak camera technique, in which the momentum of the electron is shifted by an amount depending on the relative time delay between the attosecond pulse and the streaking infrared pulse. Thus, temporal information of the attosecond pulse is encoded in the amount of momentum shift in the streaked photoelectron momentum spectrogram S(p, τ), where p is the momentum of the electron along the polarization direction and τ is the time delay. An iterative algorithm is then employed to reconstruct the attosecond pulse from the streaking spectrogram. This method, however, cannot be applied to attosecond pulses generated from free-electron x-ray lasers where each single shot is different and stochastic in time. However, using a circularly polarized infrared laser as the streaking field, a two (or three)-dimensional angular streaking electron spectrum can be used to retrieve attosecond pulses for each shot, as well as the time delay with respect to the circularly polarized IR field. Here we show that a retrieval algorithm previously developed for the traditional streaking spectrogram can be modified to efficiently characterize single-shot attosecond pulses. The methods have been applied to retrieve 188 single shots from recent experiments. We analyze the statistical behavior of these 188 pulses in terms of pulse duration, bandwidth, pulse peak energy, and time delay with respect to the IR field. The retrieval algorithm is efficient and can be easily used to characterize a large number of shots in future experiments for attosecond pulses at free-electron x-ray laser facilities.
X. Zhao et al., "Characterization of Single-Shot Attosecond Pulses with Angular Streaking Photoelectron Spectra," Physical Review A, vol. 105, no. 1, article no. 013111, American Physical Society (APS), Jan 2022.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.105.013111
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21 Jan 2022