Understanding the bolt responses for the efficacy of bolt performance during coal rib support applications plays a key role in controlling the stability of underground coal mine openings. Conducting pull-out tests is imperative to gain a better understanding of these responses. Field conditions such as block volume and degree of cleating may significantly impact bolt performance. These field conditions can be efficiently implemented in numerical modeling approaches, and selecting a proper structural element type for these numerical studies is crucial. This study developed a pull-out test model and compared the performance of structural elements as support members in the coal rib model using 3DEC, a three-dimensional distinct element-based numerical modeling code. This study covered commonly utilized cable, pile, and hybrid structural elements in rib models with explicitly introduced face cleats. The bolt response of numerical models was calibrated with the field data showing the load-displacement response of a pull-out test. Comparing the rib models with these structural elements showed that hybrid structural elements demonstrated better agreement with the field observation as they can simulate the reaction to shearing along the discontinuities by inducing bending stresses. The impact of support density on rib stability is also presented in this study.


Mining Engineering


Alpha Foundation for the Improvement of Mine Safety and Health, Grant None

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version


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Publication Date

01 Jan 2023