The Tensile Strength and Cracking Behavior of Layered Rocks in a Tensile Stress Field Are One of the Most Significant Characteristics of Rock Masses, Which May Strongly Affect the Stability of Rock Structures. the Study Presented Here Investigated the Effect of Layer Spacing and Inclination Angle on the Indirect Tensile Strength, Crack Development, Failure Pattern, and Contact Force Chain of Layered Disks under Diametral Loading using Experimental and Numerical Investigations. Numerous Experimental Models Made from Plaster Were Examined under Diametral Loading, and a Two-Dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC2D) Was Adopted for in Depth Simulation of the Failure Process. Both Numerical and Experimental Results Were Found to Be in Great Agreement and Showed that the Increase in the Layer Orientation Up to 15° Results in the Peak in the Tensile Strength Followed by a Decrease. Specimens with the Spacing Ratio (SR) of 0.5 and 0.1 Showed the Highest and Lowest Tensile and Compressive Stresses at the Disk Center, respectively. Moreover, the Numerical Analysis Indicated the Formation of Three Failure Pattern Types: TL, PB, and TL-PB. Tensile Cracks Mainly Formed in the Direction of Diametral Loading, and their Maximum Number Formed at 15° and SR = 0.5. Additionally, the Shear Ones Formed in a Conjugate System and Had Negligible Numbers. the Analysis of the Contact Force Chain Showed that the Layers Do Not Affect the Compressive Force Chain at Α < 45° But at Higher Angles, the Stronger Layers Transfer Compressive Force. However, when Α Ranges from 0° to 30°, Tensile Forces Are Distributed in Stronger Layers, and with an Increase in Α, the Concentration of These Forces in These Layers Diminishes and the Forces Are Reoriented in the Direction of Diametral Loading.


Mining Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Contact force chain; Crack development; Diametral loading; Indirect tensile strength; Layered rock; PFC 2D

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1434-7636; 1434-5021

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 Springer, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 May 2023