Effect of Bucket Geometry, Machine Variables, and Fragmentation Size on Performance of Rubber-Tired Loaders


This paper examines the effect of bucket geometry (cutting blade profile, floor profile, and blade thickness), speed, motor power output, and muckpile particle sizes on bucket penetration and draft for rubber tire loaders. The work uses a 1:16 scaled model of a load-haul-dump in full factorial experiments to examine the effect of the variables on penetration and maximum draft. The results show that speed and motor output are positively correlated to penetration and draft; muckpile particle size is positively correlated to penetration and negatively correlated to draft (p < 0.0014). The results show that buckets with a semi-spade cutting nose profile yield the highest penetration (mean 118.30 mm) followed by those with the spade (mean 108.88 mm), which also yield higher penetration than those straight blades (mean 95.19 mm). Bucket floor profile and blade thickness had no significant effect on penetration or draft. Also, we determined that increasing the speed and motor power output, simultaneously, can reduce bucket penetration. Thus, operators should not waste energy for no additional gain or even loss in bucket penetration. Also, the work finds speed and motor power output each combine with muckpile particle sizes to affect bucket penetration. This research furthers our understanding of the effectiveness of different bucket geometries in improving penetration and reducing draft for rubber tire loaders.


Mining Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Bucket geometry; Draft force; Motor power output; Penetration; Rubber tire loaders; Speed

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2524-3470; 2524-3462

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Feb 2022