Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Haul Road Response to Ultra-Large Dump Truck Dynamic Loading


Haul truck capacities have increased due to their economies of scale in large-scale surface mines. These high-capacity trucks impose dynamic loads on haul roads. A previous study estimated the dynamic forces imposed by ultra-large trucks on haul roads to be more than three times the static load. These dynamic forces exacerbate haul road stresses and deformation. Current haul road response models are 2D and use static truckloads for low-capacity trucks. No models capture the ultra-large truck dynamic effects on haul road structural response. This study uses 3D finite element (FE) modeling to compute the haul road response to ultra-large truck dynamic loading. The dynamic forces were modeled using multibody dynamics (MBD) in MSC.ADAMS. These forces were used in an FE model developed, verified, and validated in ABAQUS, to simulate the response of the haul road to the dynamic truck forces. The road was modeled using an elastoplastic Mohr-Coulomb model. The results showed that road deformation decreases with increasing layer modulus and increases with increasing payload. Increasing the base modulus from 100 MPa to 450 MPa reduced the maximum deformation from 258 mm to 62 mm. When the subbase elastic modulus increased from 100 MPa to 500 MPa, the maximum deformation decreased from 160 mm to 84 mm. Increasing the payload from 0 to 120% of the rated load increased the maximum wearing surface deformation from 131 mm to 216 mm. This study forms a basis for designing structurally competent haul roads for improving haulage efficiency and truck and operator health.


Mining Engineering


Missouri S&T, Robert H. Quenon Endowment funds

Keywords and Phrases

Dynamic Truck Loading; Finite Element Modeling; Haul Roads; Road Deformation; Truck Health

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2524-3470; 2524-3462

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Jan 2023