Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is of particular concern among military personnel due to exposure to blast energy during military training and combat. The impact of primary low-intensity blast mediated pathophysiology upon later neurobehavioral disorders has been controversial. Developing a military preclinical blast model to simulate the pathophysiology of human blast injury is an important first step. This article provides an overview of primary blast effects and perspectives of our recent studies demonstrating ultrastructural changes in the brain and behavioral disorders resulting from open-field blast exposures up to 46.6 kPa using a murine model. The model is scalable and permits exposure to varying magnitudes of primary blast injuries by placing animals at different distances from the blast center or by changing the amount of C4 charge. We here review the implications and future applications and directions of using this animal model to uncover the underlying mechanisms related to primary blast injury. Overall, these studies offer the prospect of enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis of primary low-intensity blast-induced TBI and insights for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of blast induced TBI, particularly mTBI/concussion related to current combat exposures.


Mining Engineering


This publication was made possible by funding from the DoD Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) for the Peer Reviewed Alzheimer's Research Program Convergence Science Research Award (PRARP-CSRA; AZ140109) and the research funds of the University of Missouri (to ZG).

Keywords and Phrases

Reactive oxygen metabolite; Amnesia; Anxiety; Blast injury; Brain damage; Cognitive defect; Computer assisted tomography; Corpus callosum; Degenerative disease; Glasgow coma scale; Hippocampus; Human; Locomotion; Mental stress; Mitochondrial dynamics; Myelin sheath; Necrosis; Nervous system inflammation; Pathophysiology; Posttraumatic Stress disorder; Review; Transmission electron microscopy; Ultrastructure; Animal model; Behavior; Blast physics; Mild traumatic brain injury; Open-field blast; Primary blast wave; Ultrastructural abnormalities

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Document Type

Article - Journal

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Final Version

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© 2018 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, All rights reserved.

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Publication Date

01 Aug 2018