A predictive model, based on a Cellular Automaton (CA) - Finite Element (FE) method, has been developed to simulate microstructure evolution during metal solidification for a laser based additive manufacturing process. The macroscopic FE calculation was designed to update the temperature field and simulate a high cooling rate. In the microscopic CA model, heterogeneous nucleation sites, preferential growth orientation and dendritic grain growth kinetics were simulated. The CA model was able to show the entrapment of neighboring cells and the relationship between undercooling and the grain growth rate. The model predicted the dendritic grain size, structure, and morphological evolution during the solidification phase of the deposition process. Model parameters for the simulations were based on stainless steel 316 (SS 316).
J. Zhang et al., "Probabilistic Simulation of Solidification Microstructure Evolution during Laser-Based Metal Deposition," Proceedings of the 24th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (2013, Austin, TX), pp. 739-748, University of Texas at Austin, Aug 2013.
24th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference (2013: Aug. 12-14, Austin, TX)
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Materials Science and Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
3D Printers; Cellular Automata; Computer Simulation; Deposition; Grain Growth; Growth Kinetics; Manufacture; Microstructure; Solidification; Dendritic Grain Growth; Heterogeneous Nucleation; Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing; Micro-Structure Evolutions; Morphological Evolution; Preferential Growth Orientation; Probabilistic Simulation; Solidification Microstructures; Finite Element Method
Article - Conference proceedings
14 Aug 2013