Results of a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and free molecule (FM) analysis of convective heat transfer to Al2O3 particles in solid-rocket plume environments are presented. The particle diameters are assumed to be 4μm, and the plume gases are CO2, H2O, CO, and N2. The plume gas temperature is 2000 K. Particle temperatures of 1500, 2000, and 2500 K are investigated for Knudsen numbers from 1/2 to 1000 (from slip flow to FM flow). The Nusselt number is presented in terms of Knudsen number and Reynolds number (or relative velocity). Both the Kavanau and the Kashmarov and Svirshevskii correlations generally agree with the DSMC and FM predictions of the particle Nusselt numbers. Vibrational excitation of the gas molecules is an important effect in the prediction of the particle adiabatic wall temperature. To the authors' knowledge, this paper presents the first correlations of Nusselt number and adiabatic wall temperature for high-temperature plume gases.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

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Full Access

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1533-6794; 0022-4650

Document Type

Article - Journal

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Publication Date

01 Jan 1996