Multi-scale simulation is an important basis for constructing digital batteries to improve battery design and application. Lif-rich solid electrolyte interphase (sei) is experimentally proven to be crucial for the electrochemical performance of lithium metal batteries. However, the lif-rich sei is sensitive to various electrolyte formulas and the fundamental mechanism is still unclear. Herein, the structure and formation mechanism of lif-rich sei in different electrolyte formulas have been reviewed. On this basis, it further discussed the possible filming mechanism of lif-rich sei determined by the initial adsorption of the electrolyte-derived species on the lithium metal anode (lma). It proposed that individual lif species follow the volmer–weber mode of film growth due to its poor wettability on lma. Whereas, the synergistic adsorption of additive-derived species with lif promotes the frank-vander merwe mode of film growth, resulting in uniform lif deposition on the lma surface. This perspective provides new insight into the correlation between high lif content, wettability of lif, and highperformance of uniform lif-rich sei. It disclosed the importance of additive assistant synergistic adsorption on the uniform growth of lif-rich sei, contributing to the reasonable design of electrolyte formulas and high-performance lma, and enlightening the way for multi-scale simulation of sei.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Publication Status

Open Access


National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant 22279070

Keywords and Phrases

additive-derived species; film growth mechanism; LiF-rich solid electrolyte interphase; lithium metal anode; synergistic adsorption

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2766-2098; 2766-8509

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2024 The Authors, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2024