Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flat-plate, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers are presented for nominal freestream Mach numbers of 11 and 14 and a highly cooled wall (wall-to-recovery temperature of approximately 0.2). The flow conditions of the DNS are representative of the experimental data for a Mach 11.1 turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate that was tested at Calspan–University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) and the operational conditions of the AEDC Hypervelocity Tunnel No. 9 at Mach 14. The wall shear stress and turbulent heat flux predicted by DNS show good comparisons with those measured at CUBRC and those modeled with a Baldwin-Lomax model. The generated DNS database extends the range of Reynolds numbers from those typical of previous DNS studies for hypersonic boundary-layer flows and confirms the validity of Morkovin's hypothesis within the relatively broader range of Reynolds numbers considered in this study. A priori assessment of turbulent heat flux models with DNS data shows that the algebraic energy flux (AEF) formulation gives better predictions of the streamwise turbulent heat flux than the commonly used constant turbulent Prandtl number model while both models give similarly good predictions of the wall-normal turbulent heat flux. A posteriori assessment shows that the AEF model improves the prediction of the temperature profiles while keeping a good prediction of the velocity field.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

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Office of Naval Research, Grant N00014-19-1-2501

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Article - Conference proceedings

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Publication Date

01 Jan 2020