Using the Combination of the Kinetic Theory of Gases (KTG), Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE), and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations, We Study the Transport Phenomena in the Knudsen Layer Near a Planar Evaporating Surface. the MD Simulation is First Used to Validate the Assumption Regarding the Anisotropic Velocity Distribution of Vapor Molecules in the Knudsen Layer. based on This Assumption, We Use the KTG to Formulate the Temperature and Density of Vapor at the Evaporating Surface as a Function of the Evaporation Rate and the Mass Accommodation Coefficient (MAC), and We Use These Vapor Properties as the Boundary Conditions to Find the Solution to the BTE for the Anisotropic Vapor Flow in the Knudsen Layer. from the Study of the Evaporation into a Vacuum, We Show the Ratio of the Macroscopic Speed of Vapor to the Most Probable Thermal Speed of Vapor Molecules in the Flow Direction Will Always Reach the Maximum Value of 1.5 at the Vacuum Boundary. the BTE Solutions Predict that the Maximum Evaporation Flux from a Liquid Surface at a Given Temperature Depends on Both the MAC and the Distance between the Evaporating Surface and the Vacuum Boundary. from the Study of the Evaporation and Condensation between Two Parallel Plates, We Show the BTE Solutions Give Good Predictions of Transport Phenomena in Both the Anisotropic Vapor Flow within the Knudsen Layer and the Isotropic Flow Out of the Knudsen Layer. All the Predictions from the BTE Are Verified by the MD Simulation Results.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


National Science Foundation, Grant TG-CTS130030

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2470-0053; 2470-0045

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 American Physical Society, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

16 Oct 2019

PubMed ID