In this paper, we discuss a computationally efficient approach to expedite design optimization of broadband hybrid couplers occupying a minimized substrate area. Structure size reduction is achieved here by decomposing an original coupler circuit into low- and high-impedance components and replacing them with electrically equivalent slow-wave lines with reduced physical dimensions. The main challenge is reliable design of computationally demanding low-impedance slow-wave structures that feature a quasi-periodic circuit topology for wideband operation. Our goal is to determine an adequate number of recurrent unit elements as well as to adjust their designable parameters so that the coupler footprint area is minimal. The proposed method involves using surrogate-based optimization with a reconfigurable co-simulation coarse model as the key component enabling design process acceleration. The latter model is composed in Keysight ADS circuit simulator from multiple EM-evaluated data blocks of the slow-wave unit element and theory-based feeding line models. The embedded optimization algorithm is a trust-region-based gradient search with coarse model Jacobian estimation. We exploit a penalty function approach to ensure that the electrical conditions for the slow-wave lines are accordingly satisfied, apart from explicitly minimizing the area of the coupler. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated through a design example of two-section 3-dB branch-line coupler. For the given example, we obtain nine circuit design solutions that correspond to the compact couplers whose multi-element slow-wave lines are composed of unit cells ranging from two to ten.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

branch-line couplers; co-simulation modeling; compact couplers; electromagnetic simulations; surrogate-based optimization

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Article - Conference proceedings

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Final Version

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2017