Rapid Freeze Prototyping (RFP) is a new solid freeform fabrication process that builds an ice part by rapidly freezing water layer by layer. In this paper, we will present our recent progress in the development of this novel process. An experimental system has been built for conducting the research. It consists of an XY-table and Z-stroke driven by micro-stepping motors and a water dispensing and deposition subsystem which incorporates a solenoid valve and a syringe pump placed inside a freezer. Simple heat transfer analysis is made to help select proper values of process parameters and predict part building failures. Example ice parts have been successfully built with this process. Key factors of this freeform fabrication process are identified.

Meeting Name

10th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (1999. Aug. 9-11, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Multi-lifecycle Engineering Research Center at New Jersey Institute of Technology. Dr. Ming C. Leu was on leave at the National Science Foundation as the Program Director for Manufacturing Machines & Equipment when the work described in the paper was done.

Keywords and Phrases

Solid Freeform Fabrication; Layered Manufacturing; Rapid Freeze Prototyping; Ice Patterns

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

11 Aug 1999

Included in

Manufacturing Commons