In many metal AM techniques, a laser is used as the heat source and in some applications, it can be advantageous to work off of the focal plane. When operating outside of focus, the beam quality of the laser can have drastic impacts on the ability to manufacture quality parts. This study investigates the effect of the beam quality and distance from the focal plan on the ability to deposit Ti-64, aluminum, and steel through the simulation of the blown powder process.

Meeting Name

30th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2019 (2019: Aug. 12-14, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


The support from Department of Energy Grant DE-SC0015207 and NSF grants CMMI 1625736 and EEC 1004839 are appreciated. We also appreciate the financial support provided by the Center for Aerospace Manufacturing Technology (CAMT) at the Missouri University of Science and Technology.

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

14 Aug 2019

Included in

Manufacturing Commons