In the current study, the feasibility of joining pure copper (Cu) and stainless steel 304L (SS304L) through direct metal deposition process was investigated by material characterization. Samples were analyzed in terms of microstructure, elemental distribution, and tensile testing. Direct depositing pure copper on SS304L shows copper was mechanically rather than metallurgical bonded with SS304L due to the poor dissolubility of iron in copper. Iron was diffused into copper with a diluted distance of 1.5 mm and above that, pure copper deposits were obtained. Columnar structure was observed at the copper region near the interface while the columnar grains became finer away from the interface and finally, equiaxed structure was observed. Tensile testing shows the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of combined materials (copper and SS304L) are 123 MPa and 250 MPa and samples fractured at the copper section with a ductile fracture mechanism. The bi-material interface survived the tensile test. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of as-fabricated pure copper are 95.02 MPa and 186.66 MPa, respectively.

Meeting Name

30th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2019 (2019: Aug. 12-14, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


This project was supported by National Science Foundation Grants CMMI-1547042 and CMMI-1625736, Toyota, Intelligent Systems Center (ISC), Center for Aerospace Manufacturing Technologies (CAMT), and Material Research Center (MRC) at Missouri S&T. Their financial support is greatly appreciated.

Keywords and Phrases

Copper; Stainless steel 304L; Joining; Direct metal deposition

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

14 Aug 2019

Included in

Manufacturing Commons