Correlation of SWIR Imaging with LPBF 304L Stainless Steel Part Properties


In the Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) process, the local thermal history can vary significantly over a part as the heat transfer characteristics and the laser scan path are geometry dependent. The variations introduce the potential for defects that lead to part failure, some of which are difficult to identify non-destructively with common ex-situ evaluation techniques. These defects include significant microstructural and mechanical property differences in the part interiors. In this paper, thermal features are extracted from in-situ Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) imaging measurements to compile voxel based part representations and understand how the complexities in the thermal history affect part performance. The deviations in thermal features due to different laser processing parameters and complex scan pathing are explored. Empirical correlations are developed to map thermal features with the engineering properties (bulk yield strength, area percentage porosity, and local state) of 304L stainless steel parts manufactured by LPBF. Processing modes (insufficient melting and keyholing) are determined by mapping part property measurements with multiple thermal features. Generating the relationships between thermographic measurements and resulting SLM part properties lays the foundation for in-situ part qualification.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


U.S. Department of Energy, Grant DE-NA0002839

Keywords and Phrases

In-situ monitoring; Laser powder bed fusion; Metal additive manufacturing; Thermography

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2214-8604; 2214-8604

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2020 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Oct 2020