Markov processes, such as random walk models, have been successfully used by cognitive and neural scientists to model human choice behavior and decision time for over 50 years. Recently, quantum walk models have been introduced as an alternative way to model the dynamics of human choice and confidence across time. Empirical evidence points to the need for both types of processes, and open system models provide a way to incorporate them both into a single process. However, some of the constraints required by open system models present challenges for achieving this goal. The purpose of this article is to address these challenges and formulate open system models that have good potential to make important advancements in cognitive science.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant FA9550-20-1-0027

Keywords and Phrases

Choice behavior; Confidence; Decision time; Evidence accumulation; Markov random walk; Open system models; Preference accumulation; Quantum walk

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Document Type

Article - Journal

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Final Version

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2020