Nonlinear Conversion of Orbital Angular Momentum in Tungsten Disulfide Monolayer


The unbounded dimension of orbital angular momentum of light has made it one of the most vital parameters to store, control and transport information in optical communication. Along with orbital angular momentum, frequency, polarization and intensity of light are also essential degrees of freedom for encoding and multiplexing data streams in optical and quantum information processing. Therefore, nonlinear generation and conversion of orbital angular momentum have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the nonlinear conversion of orbital angular momentum in atomically thin tungsten disulfide monolayer at both of the second- and third-harmonic frequencies of the fundamental vortex beam. Moreover, we also show that by taking advantage of the symmetry properties of the crystal, the intensity and polarization state of the converted nonlinear vortex beam can be precisely controlled and determined by the polarization state of the fundamental beam. Our results can have a direct implication in building atomically thin optical multiplexers, signal processors, and other prototypes in nonlinear optical conversion for future on-chip photonic circuits, quantum memory and computing devices.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)


The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. ECCS-1653032 and DMR 1552871, and the Office of Naval Research under Grant No. N00014-16-1-2408.

Keywords and Phrases

Angular momentum; Crystal symmetry; Data streams; Degrees of freedom (mechanics); Monolayers; Optical communication; Polarization; Quantum optics; Signal processing; Sulfur compounds; Tungsten compounds; Vortex flow, Nonlinear conversions; Nonlinear generation; Nonlinear optical conversion; Optical multiplexers; Orbital angular momentum; Orbital angular momentum of light; Quantum-information processing; Second and third harmonics, Nonlinear optics

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2040-8978; 2040-8986

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2019 Institute of Physics - IOP Publishing, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Nov 2019