Understanding Cation Doping Achieved by Atomic Layer Deposition for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries


As Li ion battery (LIB) technology develops, its nanoscale design is attracting more and more interest. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has emerged as a promising technique to provide conformal and ultrathin coating for LIB materials. In this work, an iron oxide (FeOx) ALD was performed on LiMn1·5Ni0·5O4 (LMNO) cathode particles, followed by an annealing process. Fe was doped into LMNO during the ALD process; and it was found that lattice oxygen loss and structural change of LMNO occurred at a reaction temperature of 450 °C under vacuum. Meanwhile, Fe diffused from the surface to the bulk of LMNO. After post-annealing, FeOx-coated LMNO recovered its structure and lattice oxygen under proper annealing conditions, and exhibited significant enhancement of specific capacity, rate capability, and cyclic stability.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)

Second Research Center/Lab

Center for High Performance Computing Research


This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, United States (NSF DMR 1464111 and NSF CBET 1510085). The authors would like to acknowledge Materials Research Center at Missouri University of Science and Technology.

Keywords and Phrases

Atomic Layer Deposition; Fe Doping; LiMn1·5Ni0·5O4 (LMNO); Post-Annealing

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Document Type

Article - Journal

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© 2020 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2020