Experiment and Simulation of Static Softening Behavior of Alloyed Steel during Round Bar Hot Rolling


Static softening is a crucial mechanism during the hot rolling of steel to relax residual stress and strain, refine microstructure, and improve mechanical properties. In this study, double hit tests with varying temperature, strain rate, interpass time, and pre-strains were performed using a Gleeble machine to investigate static softening behavior. Based on experimental results, a kinetic model of static softening was developed to represent interpass softening behavior during hot rolling. An explicit static softening model was implemented as a subroutine into a three-dimensional finite element model of round bar hot rolling and static softening was simulated. Results show that static softening occurs quickly at the beginning of the interpass time and then slows down. Also, the effects of temperature and rolling speed on static softening were simulated and the results show that temperature has a more significant influence on static softening than rolling speed.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center

Second Research Center/Lab

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)

Third Research Center/Lab

Center for High Performance Computing Research

Fourth Research Center/Lab

Intelligent Systems Center


This work was supported by the Peaslee Steel Manufacturing Research Center at Missouri University of Science and Technology.

Keywords and Phrases

Finite element; Hot-rolling; Manufacturing; Material modeling; Simulation

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2020 Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2020