Additive Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Metallic Materials using Laser Metal Deposition


Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have attracted much research interest in the industry due to their graded material properties, which result from gradually distributed compositions or structures. In recent years, metallic FGMs have been widely studied, and additive manufacturing (AM) has become an important approach to build metallic FGMs. This paper aims to provide an overview of the research progress in metallic FGMs fabricated by laser metal deposition (LMD), an AM process that is widely used in metallic materials. Firstly, the unique material properties and advantages of FGMs are introduced. Then, typical recent findings in transition path design, fabrication, and characterization for different types of metallic FGMs via LMD are summarized and discussed. Finally, challenges in fabricating metallic FGMs via LMD are discussed, and other related aspects in the area of FGMs such as model representation and numerical simulation are proposed for further investigation.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)


This research is supported by National Science Foundation Grants #CMMI-1547042 and CMMI-1625736.

Keywords and Phrases

Functionally graded materials; Intermediate section; Laser metal deposition; Material characterization; Metal additive manufacturing; Transition path

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

2214-7810; 2214-8604

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2020