In this chapter, a predictive multiscale model based on a cellular automaton (CA)-finite element (FE) method has been developed to simulate thermal history and microstructure evolution during metal solidification for direct metal deposition (DMD) process. The macroscopic FE calculation that is validated by the thermocouple experiment is developed to simulate the transient temperature field and cooling rate of single layer and multiple layers. In order to integrate the different scales, a CA-FE coupled model is developed to combine with thermal history and simulate grain growth. In the mesoscopic CA model, heterogeneous nucleation sites, grain growth orientation and rate, epitaxial growth, remelting of preexisting grains, metal addition, grain competitive growth and columnar to equiaxed phenomena are simulated. The CA model is able to show the entrapment of neighboring cells and the relationship between undercooling and the grain growth rate. The model predicts the grain size and morphological evolution during the solidification phase of the deposition process. The developed “decentered polygon” growth algorithm is appropriate for the nonuniform temperature field. Finally, the single- and multiple-layer DMD experiments are conducted to validate the characteristics of grain features in the simulation.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


Chapter 2

Keywords and Phrases

Finite Element; Cellular Automata; Grain Morphology; Direct Metal Deposition; Thermal Modeling

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)


Document Type

Book - Chapter

Document Version

Final Version

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Jan 2018