In this research, the impact toughness of powder bed based additively manufactured 304L stainless steel was investigated. Charpy specimens were built in vertical, horizontal and inclined (45⁰) orientations to investigate the variation in toughness with build direction. These specimens were tested in as-built and machined conditions. A significant difference in toughness was observed with varying build directions. The lowest toughness values were recorded when the notch was oriented in line with the interlayer boundary. The highest toughness was recorded when the notch was perpendicular to the interlayer boundary. A significant scatter in toughness values was also observed. The variation and distribution among the toughness values were modeled by performing 3-parameter Weibull fits. The performance and variation of the additively manufactured 304L were also compared with the toughness values of wrought 304 stainless. The additively manufactured material was observed to be significantly less tough and more variant in comparison to wrought material.

Meeting Name

29th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium -- An Additive Manufacturing Conference, SFF 2018 (2018: Aug. 13-15, Austin, TX)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Second Department

Materials Science and Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


This work has been funded by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies under Contract No. DE-NA0002839 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

The supports from National Science Foundation Grants CMMI-1625736, and the Intelligent Systems Center (ISC) at Missouri S&T are greatly appreciated.

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

Document Version

Final Version

File Type




Publication Date

15 Aug 2018