Atomically Thin Nonlinear Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Holograms


Nonlinear holography enables optical beam generation and holographic image reconstruction at new frequencies other than the excitation fundamental frequency, providing pathways toward unprecedented applications in optical information processing and data security. So far, plasmonic metasurfaces with the thickness of tens of nanometers have been mostly adopted for realizing nonlinear holograms with the potential of on-chip integration but suffering from low conversion efficiency and high absorption loss. Here, we report a nonlinear transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) hologram with high conversion efficiency and atomic thickness made of only single nanopatterned tungsten disulfide (WS2) monolayer, for producing optical vortex beams and Airy beams as well as reconstructing complex holographic images at the second harmonic (SH) frequency. Our concept of nonlinear TMD holograms paves the way toward not only the understanding of light-matter interactions at the atomic level but the integration of functional TMD-based devices with atomic thickness into the next-generation photonic circuits for optical communication, high-density optical data storage, and information security.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Center for Research in Energy and Environment (CREE)


The authors acknowledge support from the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-16-1-2408, and the National Science Foundation under Grants ECCS-1653032 and DMR-1552871. The authors thank the facility support from the Materials Research Center at Missouri S&T.

Keywords and Phrases

2D Materials; Nonlinear Holography; Second-Harmonic Generation; Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayer

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1530-6984; 1530-6992

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2019 American Chemical Society (ACS), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2019