Transient Dynamics of Powder Spattering in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Process Revealed by In-Situ High-Speed High-Energy X-Ray Imaging
Powder spattering is a major cause of defect formation and quality uncertainty in the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) process. It is very difficult to investigate this with either conventional characterization tools or modeling and simulation. The detailed dynamics of powder spattering in the LPBF process is still not fully understood. Here, we report insights into the transient dynamics of powder spattering in the LPBF process that was observed with in-situ high-speed high-energy x-ray imaging. Powder motion dynamics, as a function of time, environment pressure, and location, is presented. The moving speed, acceleration, and driving force of powder motion that are induced by metal vapor jet/plume and argon gas flow are quantified. A schematic map showing the dynamics and mechanisms of powder motion during the LPBF process as functions of time and pressure is constructed. Potential ways to mitigate powder spattering during the LPBF process are discussed and proposed, based on the revealed powder motion dynamics and mechanisms.
Q. Guo and C. Zhao and L. I. Escano and Z. Young and L. Xiong and K. Fezzaa and W. Everhart and B. Brown and T. Sun and L. Chen, "Transient Dynamics of Powder Spattering in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Process Revealed by In-Situ High-Speed High-Energy X-Ray Imaging," Acta Materialia, vol. 151, pp. 169-180, Elsevier, Jun 2018.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2018.03.036
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
3D printers; Flow of gases; Image processing; X ray analysis; Additive manufacturing process; Characterization tools; Environment pressure; High speed imaging; Model and simulation; Powder bed; Spatter; Synchrotron x rays; Powder metals; Additive manufacturing; High-speed imaging; Powder bed fusion; Synchrotron x-ray
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
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