The high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging technique was synchronized with a custom-built laser-melting setup to capture the dynamics of laser powder-bed fusion processes in situ. Various significant phenomena, including vapor-depression and melt-pool dynamics and powder-spatter ejection, were captured with high spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging frame rates of up to 10 MHz were used to capture the rapid changes in these highly dynamic phenomena. At the same time, relatively slow frame rates were employed to capture large-scale changes during the process. This experimental platform will be vital in the further understanding of laser additive manufacturing processes and will be particularly helpful in guiding efforts to reduce or eliminate microstructural defects in additively manufactured parts.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Research Center/Lab(s)

Intelligent Systems Center


This work was financially supported by Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding from Argonne National Laboratory, provided by the Director, Office of Science, of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. N. D. Parab, L. I. Escano, L. Chen and T. Sun are grateful for the support of Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM&T). A. D. Rollett and R. Cunningham are grateful for support from the University of Utah under grant No. U000095690. L. Chen ackowleges funding from the University of Missouri Research Board (UMRB). This presentation was authored by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies under Contract No. DE-NA0002839 with the US Department of Energy.

Keywords and Phrases

3D printers; Powder metals; Experimental platform; Laser additive manufacturing; Laser powders; Melt pool; Microstructural defects; Particle ejection; Spatial and temporal resolutions; Xray imaging; Image processing; Additive manufacturing; Laser powder-bed fusion; Melt pools; Particle ejection; Vapor depressions; X-ray imaging

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0909-0495; 1600-5775

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2018 Wiley-Blackwell, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Sep 2018