Powder spreading is a key step in the powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process, which determines the quality of the powder bed and, consequently, affects the quality of the manufactured part. However, powder spreading behavior under additive manufacturing condition is still not clear, largely because of the lack of particle-scale experimental study. Here, we studied particle-scale powder dynamics during the powder spreading process by using in-situ high-speed high-energy x-ray imaging. Evolution of the repose angle, slope surface speed, slope surface roughness, and the dynamics of powder clusters at the powder front were revealed and quantified. Interactions of the individual metal powders, with boundaries (substrate and container wall), were characterized, and coefficients of friction between the powders and boundaries were calculated. The effects of particle size on powder flow dynamics were revealed. The particle-scale powder spreading dynamics, reported here, are important for a thorough understanding of powder spreading behavior in the powder-bed-based additive manufacturing process, and are critical to the development and validation of models that can more accurately predict powder spreading behavior.
L. I. Escano et al., "Revealing Particle-Scale Powder Spreading Dynamics in Powder-Bed-Based Additive Manufacturing Process by High-Speed X-Ray Imaging," Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, Springer Verlag, Oct 2018.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33376-0
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
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