Fabricating metasurfaces over large areas at low costs remains a critical challenge to their practical implementation. This paper reports on the use of microsphere photolithography (MPL) to create infrared metasurfaces by changing the angle-of-incidence of the illumination to steer the photonic jet. The displacement of the photonic jet is shown to scale with the diameter of the microsphere while the exposure dose scales with the square of the microsphere diameter. This process is robust in the presence of local defects in the microsphere lattice. The paper demonstrates patterning split ring resonators and tripole based metasurfaces using MPL, which are fabricated and characterized with FTIR. The combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches in off-normal incidence microsphere photolithography technique provides cost-effective, flexible, and high-throughput fabrication of infrared metasurfaces.


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


National Science Foundation (NSF ECCS-1509589); Missouri University of Science and Technology Materials Research Center.

Keywords and Phrases

Cost effectiveness; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Photolithography; Angle of Incidence; Bottom-up and top-down; Cost effective; Critical challenges; Exposure dose; High throughput; Normal incidence; Split ring resonator; Microspheres

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2017 Optical Society of America (OSA), All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 May 2017